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Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT)

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a form of psychological treatment that is effective for treating a range of problems including depression, anxiety disorders, adjustment difficulties, alcohol and drug use problems, and eating disorders.

CBT is based on several core principles, including:

  • Psychological problems are based, in part, on faulty or unhelpful ways of thinking.

  • Psychological problems are based, in part, on learned patterns of unhelpful behavior.

  • People suffering from psychological problems can learn better ways of coping with them, thereby relieving their symptoms and becoming more effective in their lives.

CBT treatment usually involves efforts to change thinking patterns. These strategies might include:

  • Learning to recognize one’s distortions in thinking that are creating problems, and then to reevaluate them in light of reality.

  • Gaining a better understanding of the behavior and motivation of others.

  • Using problem-solving skills to cope with difficult situations.

  • Learning to develop a greater sense of confidence in one’s own abilities.

Dialectical Behaviour Therapy (DBT)

DBT is based on cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) but has been specially adapted to treat individuals who suffer from extremely intense emotions. DBT is used to help struggling individuals identify and positively change negative thinking patterns. Dialectical behavioural therapy has roughly six main points that need to work in conjunction with each other. Patients are instructed to not think too far into the future, which can be a trigger for an individual and lead them to experience the following episodes:

  • Depressive state

  • Destructive behaviours

  • Encourage eating disorders

  • Suicidal behaviors​


Individuals will be taught positive, healthy ways to deal with stress and general emotions that will occur from daily situations, and improve their overall relationships with loved ones and regulate their emotions. The end result of dialectical behavioral therapy is to identify, change and help an individual cope with negative and unhealthy behaviour patterns and emotions, mainly during social situations. Dialectical behavior therapy (dbt) is usually referred to individuals who suffer from destructive behaviors, mental health complications and chronic suicidal attempts.

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT)

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) gets it name from one of its core messages: accept what is out of your personal control, and commit to action that improves and enriches your life.

The aim of ACT is to maximise human potential for a rich, full and meaningful life. ACT (which is pronounced as the word ‘act’, not as the initials) does this by:

a) teaching you psychological skills to deal with your painful thoughts and feelings effectively – in such a way that they have much less impact and influence over you (these are known as mindfulness skills).

b) helping you to clarify what is truly important and meaningful to you – i.e your values – then use that knowledge to guide, inspire and motivate you to change your life for the better.

Mindfulness is a “hot topic” in Western psychology right now – increasingly recognised as a powerful therapeutic intervention for everything from work stress to depression – and also as an effective tool for increasing emotional intelligence. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy is a powerful mindfulness-based therapy (and coaching model) that currently leads the field in terms of research, application and results.

Mindfulness is a mental state of awareness, focus and openness – which allows you to engage fully in what you are doing at any moment.

ACT breaks mindfulness skills down into 3 categories:

1) Defusion: distancing from, and letting go of, unhelpful thoughts, beliefs and memories

2) Acceptance: making room for painful feelings, urges and sensations, and allowing them to come and go without a struggle

3) Contact with the present moment: engaging fully with your here-and-now experience, with an attitude of openness and curiosity

Schema Therapy

Schema therapy is a newer type of therapy that combines elements of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), psychoanalysis, attachment theory, and emotion-focused therapy, among others.

It’s an integrative approach that aims to treat personality disorders and other mental health concerns that don’t always respond to other treatment options. It can be particularly useful for treating borderline personality disorder.

In schema therapy, you’ll work with a therapist to uncover and understand your schemas, sometimes called early maladaptive schemas.

Schemas are unhelpful patterns that some people develop if their emotional needs aren’t met as a child.

These schemas can affect you throughout life and contribute to problematic coping methods and behaviors if they aren’t addressed.

Schema therapy aims to teach you how to ensure your emotional needs are met in a healthy way that doesn’t cause distress.

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